A Guide in the Preparation of Manuscripts for the Philippine Journal of Development (PJD)

Articles on economic development, business, political dynamics, public administration, foreign relations, and other related subjects, which are policy-oriented and may or may not explicitly have a bearing on the Philippines, will be considered for publication in the Philippine Journal of Development.

All contributions are refereed for quality and relevance based on the Institute's publication guidelines. Time normally allowed for the review process is two months. All submitted articles must be original and unpublished. Papers that are simultaneously being considered in other journals may not be accepted. Such simultaneous consideration must be brought to the attention of the editorial staff.

Manuscripts must be typed double-space and should be accompanied by an abstract of not more than 500 words. The full text of the manuscript should not exceed 8,000 words.

Book reviews are also accepted. The theme or topic of the book should fall within the scope of the articles accepted for publication in the Journal. Book reviews must also be typed double-space and should not exceed 1,500 words. The electronic file of the manuscript must also be submitted.


  1. American rather than British spelling is preferred. Webster’s International Dictionary is the standard reference for spelling.

  2. Mathematical equations should be avoided but where unavoidable, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of factors should be written on a single line; thus, for example:
    a + b = c; dy/dx = B; [(a - b) (c + d)]/(m + n) = r.

  3. The International System of Units (SI) measurements and weights is used by PIDS because of its worldwide acceptance.

  4. Acronyms are spelled out the first time they are used in the manuscript. Do not give any acronym in parentheses if it is not used subsequently in the manuscript.

  5. Periods after capital letters that are abbreviations for names of countries or organizations (e.g., USA) are omitted. These are also treated as singular nouns.

  6. Numerals smaller than 10 are spelled out unless when accompanied by a standard unit of measure.

  7. Numerals from 10 and larger are never spelled out unless they are used to begin a sentence.

  8. In a series containing some numbers of 10 or more, numerals are used for all.

  9. PIDS follows the trend of doing away with hyphens and joining words (permanent closed compounds) or leaving them open (open compounds).

    Some Rules:

    • Solid compound words are a combination of two elements, originally separate words but now spelled as one word.
      E.g., decisionmaking, typesetting, policymaker, parttime

    • Temporary compounds when used as adjectives should be joined by a hyphen.
      E.g., small-scale business, high-priced goods, length-frequency data

    • Word-forming prefixes generally form closed compounds.
      E.g., bivalent, biophysical, socioeconomic, coauthor, interrelated, macroeconomics, multidisciplinary

    For more details on compound words and hyphenation, refer to the Chicago Manual of Style.

  10. PIDS prefers the use of serial comma in a series (i.e., comma before "and").

  11. The word “percent” is written as a single word. When used in the text, the full word should appear preceded by the number. When inside the parentheses, only the symbol is used.

  12. PIDS uses the ISO currency codes (USD for US dollar, GBP for British pounds, PHP for Philippine peso, and so on). The currency code is written before the numeral with a space in between (e.g., PHP 200 million, USD 400).

  13. The recommended format for dates is to write the month followed by the date and the year (e.g., December 21, 2012).

  14. Figure and table titles are placed above the figure/table.

  15. Contractions should be avoided (e.g., don’t, isn’t, can’t, wasn’t).

Reference citation and formatting

What to include

  • Only references cited in the text, tables, and figures should appear under "References".

How to arrange

  • Arrange references in alphabetical order according to authors' names.

  • For papers by the same author or author team, use a 3-em dash (i.e., ———) in place of the authors’ names. List these in chronological order, according to year of publication.
    (Note: An em dash is longer than an en dash. To insert an em dash using automatic formatting in MS Word, click Alt + 0151.)

  • For papers by the same senior author but different coauthors, alphabetize by the second author and so on.

  • If two or more references by the same author(s) from the same year would have the same citation in the text, list them as 1999a, 1999b, and so on.

  • Use semicolon to separate different authors; for example: (Bell 1989; Turner 2001; Sawyer 2004).

  • When two or more references are cited in the text, chronology has precedence over alphabet; for example: (Santos 1978, 1979; Manese 1982, 1994; Werner 2001).

How to format

PIDS' style guide in formatting references is based on the Chicago Manual of Style’s (CMS) scientific style of citation for social sciences and natural sciences, with a few modifications. The following are the specific guidelines that must be followed:

  • Use the initials of the first and second names (if there is any) and the middle name (when given) instead of the full name. These initials must be separated by a period without a space in between.

  • For multiple-author books, names of the second, third, and succeeding authors must be given in the references. They are designated as “et al.” only in the text but not in the references.

  • Titles of publication should be in sentence case (i.e., only the first character is capitalized. If there is a subtitle, usually separated by a colon, capitalize the first charater in the subtitle.)

  1. For books:

    1. Single author or editor

      Watt, K.E. 1973. Principles of environmental science. New York: McGraw Hill Co.

      In text: (Watt 1973)

      Khandker, S., Editor. 2002. Impact of Asian financial crisis revisited. Makati City, Philippines and Washington, DC, USA: Philippine Institute for Development Studies and The World Bank Institute.

      In text: (Khandker 2002)

    2. Two authors

      Bethelemy, J.C. and A. Varoudakis. 1996. Financial development policy and growth. Paris: OECD Development Centre.

      In text: (Bethelemy and Varoudakis 1996)

    3. Multiple authors

      Breiman, L., J. Friedman, R. Olshen, and C. Stone. 1984 Classification and regression trees. New York: Chapman & Hall.

      In text: (Breiman et al. 1984)

  2. For books with corporate or organization author

    Asian Development Bank (ADB). 1991. Government policies and foreign direct investment. Manila: ADB.

    In text: (ADB 1991)

  3. For journal articles

    Herrin, A.M. and M.P. Costello. 1998. Policy responses to future population growth in the Philippines. Journal of Philippine Development 45(1):127-146.

    In text: (Herrin and Costello 1998)

  4. For thesis or dissertation

    Araño, R.R. 1985. A regional land-use allocation model: an interactive, multi-objective approach. Ph.D. dissertation, University of the Philippines Los Baños.

  5. For discussion papers or working papers

    Orbeta, A. 1994. Towards a model for analyzing the impact of macroeconomic adjustment policies on households: a review of empirical household model in the Philippines. PIDS Discussion Paper Series No. 94-05. Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies.

    In text: (Orbeta 1994)

  6. For papers presented in a conference

    Florentino, R., G. Vilavieja, W. Molano, B. Raymundo, and R.D. Lana. 1996. Contributions of major food items on caloric and protein intake of Filipinos. Paper presented at the Technical Workshop of the Micro Impact on Macro Adjustment Policies Project, April 11-12, Punta Baluarte, Calatagan, Batangas, Philippines.

    In text: (Florentino et al. 1996)

  7. For papers printed in published proceedings

    Alderman, H. 1993. New research on poverty and malnutrition: what are the implications for policy. In Including the poor, edited by M. Lipton and J. van der Gaag. Proceedings of a symposium. Washington, D.C.: World Bank and the International Food Policy Research Institute.

    In text: (Alderman 1983)

  8. For new or revised edition.

    Smart, N. 1976. The religious experience of mankind. 2nd ed. New York: Scribner.

    In text: (Smart 1976)

  9. For articles from newspapers and popular magazines

    de la Cruz, J. 1978. Rules on fisheries joint ventures studied further. Manila Bulletin. December 30.

    In text: de la Cruz 1978)

  10. For anonymous works, the use of Anonymous or Anon. is to be avoided.

    Both the note citation and the bibliography entry should begin with the title of the work. In alphabetizing the entry in the References/Bibliography, the initial article is discounted. The article may be transposed to the end of the title, preceded by a comma.

    For example:
    Beginning of Consciousness, The

  11. For references taken from electronic sources (databases, online journals, web sites, newsgroup, web or email-based discussion groups, and web or email-based newsletters)

    Author, A. 2000. Title of work. http:sourcepath (access date).

    Author or Authors. Year of publication. Title of work. Title of periodical xx (xx). http:sourcepath (access date).

    Wagstaff, A. 2008. Measuring financial protection in health. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/ external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/03/12/000158349 _20080312140044/Rendered/PDF/wps4554.pdf (accessed on February 3, 2011).

    Reyes, E. 2014. 6.1M senior citizens to get automatic PhilHealth coverage after Pnoy signs law. InterAksyon.com. http://www.interaksyon .com/article/98966/6-1m-senior-citizens-to-get-automatic-philhealth -coverage-after-pnoy-signs-law (accessed on January 4, 2015).

    Note: Ideally, the access date should contain the month, day, and year.


The preferred method of sending contributions is via e-mail. Submit the full article to PJD@mail.pids.gov.ph for a "first look". This initial screening is done so that only articles that have good chances of gaining favorable referees' report are actually put into the refereeing process. If the initial assessment is positive, it will undergo a double-blind review process that normally takes two months.

Manuscripts may also be handcarried or mailed to the following address:

The PJD Editorial Management
Research Information Department
Philippine Institute for Development Studies
18F, Three Cyberpod Centris - North Tower
EDSA corner Quezon Avenue
Quezon City, Philippines

Five complimentary copies of the Journal and 24 offprint copies of the article are given to each author whose article is included in the issue. Where there is more than one author, copies will be divided equally among them. For additional copies, the author(s) may place orders at discounted rates with the editorial staff.

For e-mail submissions or inquiries, send toPJD@mail.pids.gov.ph.